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HYDROTHERMAL REACTION & IT’S APPLICATIONS – A BRIEF PRIMER

What is hydrothermal reaction?

Hydrothermal methods & processing techniques have been extensively used in waste management treatment areas, synthesis of advanced materials, and in the formulation and extraction process of special chemicals. Studies also were done for replicating geothermal processes. Currently, the Methods & techniques of hydro-thermal sciences are gaining high importance in ongoing research areas being pursued by industry and academia.

Hydrothermal methods & processing techniques involve a spectrum of a process like ‘hydrothermal crystallization process, Standardizing of hydrothermal processes, latest research & development of new materials including advances in supercritical fluid reaction systems.

Design Aspects

HYDROTHERMAL AUTOCLAVE

The hydrothermal autoclave primarily used for crystallization process, which involves the process of treating hydrothermal solvent under high temperature and pressure conditions. There are two types of reactor depending on the inner vessel type, One made of Teflon/PTFE lined hydrothermal autoclave, the other one is a Tecilon lined autoclave particularly used for the high-temperature method, i.e., above 250 degree Celsius. Prime users of the two reactor varieties are Research labs, academic institutes as well as industries. Many types have designed & developed after factoring the Teflon liner capacity starting from 10ml, to 3000 ml. The other industry term for hydrothermal autoclave is also known as hydrothermal synthesis reactor used to carry out the hydrothermal reaction.

Evolution of hydrothermal autoclave

One interesting development when it comes to the hydrothermal reaction is that to sustain high peak pressure at peak temperature for a prolonged period. The gold lining was put to use during the early days while designing steel autoclaves by researchers. Thus along with new designs more & better new lining materials were used to design reliable autoclaves which would perform under peak pressure & peak temperature and therefore such specially designed hydrothermal autoclave came to termed as “hydrothermal bomb” that helped to induce the desired ideal conditions for the synthesis of several high-temperature oxide minerals.

Hydrothermal Synthesis Reactor:

There are autoclaves which specifically used for hydrothermal and solvo thermal Synthesis. It commonly utilized in the Research labs & academic institutes. It comes in Teflon or PTFE-lined stainless steel vessel form.

Hydro-thermal synthesis reactor is a reactor that uses synthetic chemicals involving a particular temperature, & used under distinct pressure conditions.

Applied Areas:

Stainless steel hydro-thermal Synthesis reactor is commonly used in

i.   New materials

ii.   Energy environmental engineering processes.

iii.   Scientific research experiments

iv.   Also, other such small reactors are commonly used in Research labs academic institutes &
      by faculty teams in universities for training & teaching involving scientific research.

Primary Benefits:

a)   Hydro-thermal synthesis reactor offers enough resistance from corrosive damages

b)   It protects from spillage of hazardous substances.

c)   Decreases pollution

d)   Apart from the above benefits there are many other benefits

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