Silicon Wafer originated from the silicon ingot, where the cylindrically shaped ingot sliced into thin circular pieces with the help of wire cutting process. It is also known as a silicon substrate or dice. The silicon exists abundantly in the earth crust, whereas it a 2nd most available material in the universe. There are several silicon fabrication methods mainly horizontal gradient freeze and Bridgeman method, vertical Bridgeman and gradient freeze method. The most famous and commonly used techniques are Czochralski pulling or CZ method and Float Zone or FZ growth method. The CZ method mainly used for the fabrication of single crystalline silicon. The FZ silicon wafer is a highly pure finished product. The silicon wafer majorly used as a semiconductor and as a fundamental platform for the electronic devices. Initially, Germanium used as a semiconductor, but later Silicon replaces it and becomes the best semiconductor material till date.
TYPES OF SILICON WAFER
There are two types of varieties available in silicon wafer such as doped and un-doped. A un-doped type is a pure form of silicon, whereas the doped is non-pure form in which a few elements have added in the form of impurities or dopant. The un-doped is known as intrinsic silicon wafer while the doped termed as extrinsic or degenerate wafer depends on the amount of doping. If a doping amount is tiny/moderate, then it is the extrinsic type and on another hand, if doping quantity is high, then it is Degenerate type. The doping is necessary to change the electrical property of material. In research and industry, doped one used extensively. There are two doped substrate one is a positive i.e. P-type silicon wafer, and another is negative (N-type) silicon wafer. Generally, during the process of silicon fabrication the boron added to produce P-type material and Phosphorus, Antimony, Arsenic doped to make N-type material. In this, the N-type wafer has some negatively charged electrons while P-type has some number of positively charged holes.
Silicon Wafer are available in stock. We supply monocrystalline, polycrystalline as well as amorphous silicon wafer. It is brittle in nature and dark gray color in appearance. It extensively used in the electronics industry and integrated circuit manufacturing. The diameter size of wafer varies as per the requirement of application. The latest maximum produced size is 450mm, and day by day it is increasing. It packed in a holder or cassette of different capacity with fully vacuum sealed film. The packing should be contamination free and hence the material wrapped in a clean room environment. We also provide the cost effective customized thermal oxide layer on silicon wafer. Few customization such as corner cut, etched, lapped would be done. For particular use, small pieces of square block produce by dicing and cleaving of silicon wafers.
Fantastic Facts about Silicon Wafer
Silicon wafers are one of the most common semiconductors in use today all over the world, in industrial electronics and even consumer items. Apart from the above-given details, these are some of the more interesting facts you need to know about Silicon Wafers:
- Fabrication methods – To create silicon wafer, there are several manufacturing methods used today, including the horizontal Bridgeman method, horizontal freeze method, vertical Bridgeman method, Czochralski (Cz) pulling method and vertical gradient freeze method.
- Doping – This technique is used to alter the electrical properties of the individual wafer. When certain impurities added to silicon during the growth process, it helps to change the electrical conduction power of the silicon wafer created from it.
- IC components – Silicon is highly useful in making ICs (integrated circuits) for electronic products and machines. Silicon makes the primary platform for semiconductor devices. The wafer acts as a substrate for microelectronic devices which designed around the silicon chip.
- Silicon storage tips – Storing silicon wafer efficiently and safely is the key to maintaining its excellent properties. Ideally, silicon wafer are not vacuum-sealed and need to be stored in a nitrogen cabinet, having a flow rate of 2-6 Standard cu. Ft./hr.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF SILICON WAFER
We stock various types of Ultra-Flat Silicon, which covers the following range of specifications.
- Type: N-type, P-type and intrinsic type
- Grade: Prime, Test, monitor and dummy
- Orientations: <100>, <110>, and <111>
- Thickness: 10 µm to 1mm
- Diameter: 25.4mm (1”) to 450mm (17.6 inches)
- Surface Resistivity: < 1 ohm/sq. to 50000 ohms/sq.
- Surface: Single side polished (SSP) or double side polished (DSP)
SILICON WAFER USED IN APPLICATIONS
- Semiconductor manufacturing
- Computers and PC’s
- Smartphone, Tablets, Wearable’s
- Automobiles, Drones and Aerospace Industry
- Home Appliances
- Artificial Intelligence
- Self-Driving Cars, Robotics, Integrated Circuits
- Used For Thin Film Deposition and Instrument Calibration
- High Power Application, Detector / Sensor Device
- MEMS Fabrication
- Rectifiers, Transistors, and Diodes
- Opto-Electronic Components
- Solar Cell Applications, Microchips